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    Anatomy bones muscels

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    TITOBASHA
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    تاريخ التسجيل : 07/10/2009
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    Anatomy bones muscels

    مُساهمة من طرف TITOBASHA في الجمعة ديسمبر 11, 2009 7:58 am

    Anatomical Planes of the Body


    Second, you will consider the planes of the body. Understanding these will facilitate learning terms related to position of structures relative to each other and movement of various parts of the body.

    FRONTAL (or coronal) separates the body into Anterior and Posterior parts
    MEDIAN (or midsagittal) separates body into Right and Left parts
    HORIZONTAL separates the body into Superior and Inferior parts
    SAGITTAL any plane parallel to the median plane
    After taking a look at the Anatomical Planes, you can then view some of the terms related to the planes. These are listed in the following tables. You will notice that most of these are in pairs of opposites.
    Terms of relation or position


    Bones


    There are three bones that make up the foundation of the posterior shoulder region of the upper limb:

    • Clavicle
    • Scapula
    • Upper posterior humerus

    Here are the major parts of of these bones:
    Clavicle

    • sternal end
    • acromial end
    Scapula

    1. spine
    2. acromion
    3. superior border
    4. supraspinous fossa
    5. infraspinous fossa
    6. medial (vertebral) border
    7. lateral (axillary) border
    8. inferior angle
    9. superior angle
    10. glenoid fossa (lateral angle)
    11. coracoid process
    12. superior scapular notch
    13. subscapular fossa
    14. supraglenoid tubercle
    15. infraglenoid tubercle
    posterior humerus

    1. head
    2. neck
    3. greater tubercle
    4. deltoid tuberosity








    superior (closer to the head)inferior (closer to the feet)reference point -- horizontal plane
    posterior (dorsal) closer to the posterior surface of the bodyanterior (ventral) closer to the anterior surface of the bodyreference point -- frontal or coronal plane
    medial (lying closer to the midline)lateral (lying further away from the midline)reference point -- sagittal plane
    proximal closer to the origin of a structuredistal further away from the origin of a structurereference point -- the origin of a structure
    superficialdeepreference point -- surface of body or organ
    medianreference point -- along the midsagittal or median plane
    intermediatebetween two other structures
    externalinternalrefers to a hollow structure (external being outside and internal being inside)
    supineproneface or palm up when lying on back, face or palm down when lying on anterior surface of body
    cephaladcaudadtoward the head, toward the tail (feet)
    Terms of movement



    flexionextensionincreasing angle with frontal plane
    decreasing angle with frontal plane
    abductionadductionmoving away from or toward the sagittal plane
    protractionretractionmoving forward or backward along a surface
    elevationdepressionraising or lowering a structure
    medial rotationlateral rotationmovement around an axis of a bone
    pronationsupinationplacing palm backward or forward (in anatomical position)
    circumductioncombined movements of flexion,
    extension, abduction, adduction
    medial and lateral rotation
    circumscribe a cone
    oppositionbringing tips of fingers and thumb together
    as in picking something up
    Table of Frequently Used Terms in Anatomy


    <tr><tr>
    Aditusan entrance or opening
    Alaa wing-like process
    Alveolusa deep narrow pit, such as a tooth-socket
    Ampullaused to describe the dilated part of a duct.
    Ansaa loop, usually referring to a nerve
    Antruma cavity
    Aponeurosisa glistening sheet of fibrous connective tissue from which muscle fibers arise or into which they run
    Arterya blood vessel which conducts blood from the heart
    Bonea special form of connective tissue in which calcium salts are deposited and which provides a framework, or skeleton, for the other tissues of the body.
    Bursaa membranous sac containing a small amount of viscous fluid. A bursa is usually found in tissues where friction develops, such as where a tendon crosses a bony prominence. A bursa may form synovial sheaths to surround tendons as they cross other tendons or bone.
    Canala tubular and relatively narrow channel, or tunnel, often through a bone. A canaliculus is a smaller canal.
    Capsulea fibrous or membranous envelope surrounding an organ. An articular capsule surrounds each synovial joint, being attached to the bones just beyond the limits of the joint cavity.
    Cartilagea firm white tissue, from which most parts of the bony skeleton are formed and which persists to protect the surfaces of bones and joints.
    Carunclea small fleshy eminence
    Caudatail
    Cavitya hollow space (or potential space) within the body or its organs.
    Cervixmeans neck and is applied to the neck like portion of an organ (e.g. cervix of uterus)
    Chiasmaa crossing of fibers in the form of an X. Used primarily to describe nerve fibers.
    Commissurea band of fibers which join corresponding right and left parts of a structure across the median plane.
    Corpusmeans body
    Cortexouter part, or rind, or some organs as distinguished from their inner part, or core usually called a medulla.
    Cresta projecting ridge, especially one which on a bone
    Crusmeans a leg and is applied to a structure that resembles a leg or stalk
    Decussationsame as a chiasma. A crossing of fibers in the form of an X.
    Digitationa finger like process of a muscle
    Disca flat round structure usually applied to plates of cartilage in joints.
    Ducta tube for the passage of fluid, especially secretions of glands. A ductule is a small duct.
    Epitheliuma layer of cells which forms the external surface of the skin, or which lines the cavities of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital organs, serous cavities, inner coats of blood and lymphatic vessels, gland and cavities within the brain. The epithelium of the skin is the epidermis. The epithelium of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital organs is moistened by a film of mucus and is known as the mucous coat. The epithelium lining bloods vessels is known as the endothelium. Serous cavities are lined by epithelium called mesothelium.
    Fasciatissue which lies immediately deep to the skin known as subcutaneous tissue. It usually consists of a layer of connective tissue which contains fat, and of a deep and more fibrous layer which adheres to the surface of the underlying muscle and vessels. These layers are known as superficial and deep fascia respectively. Fascia surrounds every muscle, organ, vessel and nerve in the body.
    Fasciculusa small bundle. A term that is usually applied to collections of nerve fibers.
    Filumliterally mean a "thread". This name is given to several thread-like structures such as the filum terminale, the lower extension of the pia mater of the spinal cord.
    Folda ridge formed where a membrane doubles back on itself
    Foliummean leaf. The plural "folia" is applied to the folds of the cortex of the cerebellum.
    Foramena hole, often in a bone or between adjacent bones.
    Fossaa "ditch", usually referring to a shallow depression or cavity.
    Foveaa small pit or fossa
    Frenuluma small fold of the mucous coat which limits the movement of the structure to which it is attached
    Fundusused to denote the widest part of a hollow organ
    Gangliona swelling on the course of a nerve. Usually corresponds to a collection of nerve cells.
    Genumean knee. Geniculum is sometimes applied to a bent part of a structure.
    Gyrusa fold or convolution of the cerebral cortex.
    Hiluma depression or notch where blood vessels enter or leave an organ.
    Humorapplied to fluids of the eye
    Infundibuluma funnel-shaped passage
    Interdigitatean interlocking of structures by finger-like processes, as when the fingers of the two hands are interposed.
    Invaginatea process when part of a wall of a structure is pushed inwards to that the structure which invaginates the membrane becomes partly ensheathed by it.
    Isthmusa narrow part of a duct or other passage, or a narrow strip of tissue connecting two wider parts of an organ
    Joints

    places where bones meet each other (articulate). Where bones are connected by fibrous tissue, the joint is known as a fibrous joint (i.e. suture of skull). Where bones are united by cartilaginous tissue, the joint is known as a cartilaginous joint (i.e. symphysis pubis). Where a space intervenes between the articulating ends of bones, the joint is called a synovial joint (i.e. most of the joints of the body). In these joints, there is an articular capsule the encloses the joint. This capsule is lined by a synovial membrane which secretes a lubricating fluid.


    Labiumlip
    LaminaA thin plate of bone or cartilage or a thin layer of softer tissues. A stratum is also used to denote a layer
    Ligamenta band of fibrous connective tissue by which bones are connected to each other. Sometimes bands of connective tissue which support the viscera or the thorax or abdomen are also known as ligaments.
    Lobea part of an organ, often separated from the rest by a fissure. A lobule is a small lobe
    Meatusa passage or opening
    Musclethese structures vary in shape and size, but always consist of masses of special contractile cells which are under nervous control. It is usual to describe a muscle as possessing an origin and insertion, in the sense that when the muscle contracts, the insertion moves toward the origin. It is probably more useful to regard a muscle as possessing attachments which are approximated when the whole muscle contracts. The original of a muscle is sometimes called the head and the contractile part the belly.
    Nerves
    the nerves of the body can be divided into twelve pairs of cranial nerves, which arise from the brain and brainstem, 31-33 pairs of spinal nerves which arise from the spinal cord in segmental series (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1-3 coccygeal). The spinal nerves emerge from the intervertebral foramina which lie along side of adjacent vertebrae. The pass laterally into the neck or trunk.
    A typical spinal nerve is formed by the union of a dorsal root, which arises from the dorsal aspect of the spinal cord and a ventral root which arises from the ventral aspect of the spinal cord. The dorsal root consists of sensory (afferent) fibers and contains a swelling called the dorsal root ganglion. This ganglion contains the cells bodies of the sensory nerve fibers. The ventral root consists of motor (efferent) nerve fibers.
    The nerve trunk formed by the mergence of the two roots splits immediately into a dorsal ramus and a ventral ramus. The dorsal ramus supplies the deeper muscles of the back the their overlying skin. The ventral ramus supplies muscles and skin on the lateral and ventral aspects of the body. The nerve supply of the limbs is derived entirely from the ventral rami of the spinal nerves.
    Sympathetic nervesJust at the point where the 12 thoracic and first 2 lumbar spinal nerve trunks split into a dorsal and ventral ramus, two branches leave the trunk that connect to the sympathetic chain ganglia, and these are called the communicating rami. The gray communicating ramus usually comes off first and connects to the ganglion in the sympathetic chain. It carries post ganglionic neurons from the ganglion back to the spinal nerve trunk and thence to its branches. The white communicating ramus arises a little more distal than the gray one and also connects to the sympathetic chain and its ganglia. This connection carries pre ganglionic neurons from the spinal cord to the sympathetic chain where synapses may occur at that level or past the sympathetic ganglia into other sympathetic ganglia.
    NeuronThe neuron or nerve cell is the functional unit of the nervous system. Each is composed of a cell body (perikaryon) where the nucleus of the cell is located, and one or more processes. One of the processes, called the axon, is different from the others, which are called dendrites. The dendrites and body are the receiving part of the neuron and the axon is the distribution part of the neuron.
    Nodea swelling or protuberance. A nodule is a small node.
    Notchan indentation or depression, usually on the border of a bone.
    Nucleusliterally means a kernel or nut. In anatomy, nucleus is most often used to describe an aggregation or cluster of nerve cells.
    Papillaa small nipple-shaped elevation
    Periosteumthe fibrous covering of a bone.
    Plexusa network of nerve or vessel processes
    Pouchpockets of peritoneum in the abdomen
    Processan appendage or projection from the main part of a bone or organ
    Punctuma minute opening
    Ramusa branch, which, when translated, is used to describe smaller arteries, veins and nerves arising from their parent vessels or nerves.
    Raphea seam where two similar sheets of tissue unite.
    Retea network, used to describe plexuses of small canals, nerves or vessels
    Retinaculuma band of connective tissue, usually connected at both ends to bone, which keeps tendons or other structures in place
    Rimaa cleft or fissure that refers to a narrow oval or oblong opening
    Rootthe part of a nerve or organ which arises from another structure
    Saca bag-like cavity or pouch
    Septuma dividing wall or partition
    Sinusa recess, a cavity or hollow space, a dilated channel for venous blood or a small tunnel
    Spacea clearly demarcated segment of tissue or potential cavity
    Spinea small, sharp-pointed projection from a bone
    Striaa streak or stripe, sometimes slightly elevated
    Stromasupporting fibrous framework of tissue
    Substantiameans substance or matter
    Sulcusa groove
    Taeniaa flat band or tape, applied to a narrow strip of muscle
    Tegmenroof
    Telameans a web and describes a thin web-like membrane. Loosely translated, it can mean tissue
    Tendona cord of connective tissue into which muscles fibers end by which a muscle is attached to bone or other structures
    Trabeculameans a beam or bar.
    Tracta bundle of fibers, often nerve fibers, having similar origins and terminations
    Trigonuma triangular space or area
    Trochleapulley
    Tuberan enlargement or swelling
    Tuberclean eminence on a bone, usually smoother than a tuberosity
    Tuberositya rough eminence on a bone
    Tunicaa covering or coat around muscle or hollow viscera
    Uvulameans little grape, usually referring to the small fleshy appendage that hangs from the soft palate.
    Valleculaa wide depression, furrow or valley
    Valvea fold in an artery, vein or duct which prevents reflux of its contents
    Vasa tubular structure
    Velummeans a veil or curtain.
    Veinsvessels that return blood from capillaries to the heart
    Viscusany organ of the digestive, respiratory or urogenital systems, or ductless gland. Viscera is the plural.





    • superficial - muscles that act on the upper limb
    • intermediate - muscles of thorax
    • deep - muscles of vertebral column

    There are 5 pairs of muscles in the superficial layer (3 are deep to the trapezius>:

    • trapezius
    • latissimus dorsi
    • rhomboid major
    • rhomboid minor
    • levator scapulae



    Arteries and Nerves That Supply the Superficial Layer of Muscles of the Back


    The nerves that supply the muscles in this region are the:

    • spinal accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI)
    • branches of cervical nerves 3 and 4 (not shown)
    • dorsal scapular nerve
    • thoracodorsal nerve

      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو السبت أغسطس 19, 2017 5:00 pm